Research & references

Nirvana® is a holistic body & mind concept incorporating a vast amount of experience and science into a extremely efficient body workout and simple, yet fun way to reach a sense of profound relaxation of the mind.

Here are listed some of the research papers & references Nirvana® is built on. The following quotes & links provide a scientific backup for each of the concepts included in the system.


Research & References by the condition



Diabetes
"It can be concluded that diaphragmatic breathing can be employed as an effective therapy in reducing the oxidative stress while it can be incorporated as an add-on therapy to standard care in improving the anthropometry and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386551
http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/22/1/30
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22789789
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19629309

Insomnia
"Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7675582
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234581
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538082

Asthma/COPD
"Breathing retraining program can improve lung functions, arterial blood gas and the levels of activities of daily living. Therefore, breathing retraining should be included in respiratory physiotherapy programs in patients with COPD."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088703
http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/1904
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691248
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1794892

Stress/Burnout
"The results showed that the slow-breathing technique could have a significant effect on improvement of the hemodynamic changes following the acute stressful tasks, especially in the passive coping task."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18003209
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995346
http://www.hsj.gr/medicine/stress-management-techniques-evidencebased-
procedures-that-reduce-stress-and-promote-health.php?aid=3429


Obesity
"The most natural way to lose weight without exercise is to improve blood circulation and cell oxygen levels by correct breathing & gradual breathing normalization."
http://www.normalbreathing.com/how-to/how-to-lose-weight-without-exercise.php
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1550-8528.1994.tb00084.x/pdf

CardioVascular disease & Hypertension
"The results of this follow-up study indicate that breathing retraining had lasting effects on both respiratory parameters measured. Subjects evidenced significantly higher end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and lower respiratory rates when compared to pretreatment levels measured three years earlier. Subjects also continued to report a decrease in the frequency of functional cardiac symptoms when compared to pretreatment levels. We conclude that breathing retraining has lasting effects on respiratory physiology and is highly correlated with a reduction in reported functional cardiac symptoms."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805966
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28502461
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534616
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470470
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11725167
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16282367
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004338
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16765850

Cancer
"The lung cancer patient should learn diaphragmatic breathing through pursed lips. Diaphragmatic breathing strengthens the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles. This will allow more air to move in and out of the lungs with less tiring of the chest muscles. When the diaphragm becomes weak, the patient compensates by using the shoulders and other muscles to help them breathe."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4931142/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9426087

School & Sport performance
"Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107920/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455070/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728977/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832119/

Longevity
"Results from several studies have described a relationship between pulmonary function and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of pulmonary function by gender after 29 years of follow-up. These results suggest that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates in both genders and could be used as a tool in general health assessment."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10988186
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449227/

Depression/Anxiety
"Controlled breathing techniques significantly improved dyspnea, anxiety, and mobility. All the measured variables improved in the intervention group. The control group had poorer values in all the variables after the hospitalization period."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23882107
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8126685
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/990660

Thyroid problems
"In patients with severe hypothyroidism, the ventilatory control system may be altered at the neural level, as indicated by a blunted chemosensitivity."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9814494
http://www.env-health.org/IMG/pdf/18062014_final_health_costs_in_the_european_union_how_much_is_realted_to_edcs.pdf

Headache/Migraine
"Intervention showed significant clinical improvement in both groups. Headache frequency and intensity were reduced more in Yoga with conventional care than the conventional care group alone. Furthermore, Yoga therapy enhanced the vagal tone and decreased the sympathetic drive, hence improving the cardiac autonomic balance. Thus, Yoga therapy can be effectively incorporated as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097897/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1495855/?page=1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1601534/?page=1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2122789
http://www.mf.uni-lj.si/dokumenti/ecd3683a7a901e-978be50c39a27df0b9.pdf

ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
"A growing number of empirical studies have revealed that diaphragmatic breathing may trigger body relaxation responses and benefit both physical and mental health. In the present study, we investigated the diaphragmatic breathing as a single intervention method for sustained attention improvement. The results suggested that 20 session’s intervention provided an improvement in the NCT score."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455070/
http://www.chadd.org/Understanding-ADHD/About-ADHD/Data-and-Statistics/Cost-of-ADHD.aspx
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447989/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263567/

Epilepsy
"Ten of the seizure-group subjects were in the study at least 7 months and following treatment, 8 showed EEG power spectrum "normalization", restoration of cardio-respiratory synchrony (RSA), and their seizure frequency and severity were significantly reduced."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6426301
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6435147

Allergies
"Based upon the available evidence, it seems apparent that chronic stress in susceptible individual can favor the manifestation of allergic disease and exacerbate as well as complicate control of the existing allergic diseases."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3264048/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3051852/
http://www.eaaci.org/documents/EAACI_Advocacy_Manifesto.pdf

Snoring & Sleep Apnea
"Over 95 percent of clients with sleep apnoea had improved sleep. Approximately 80 percent of clients had been able to cease use of their CPAP machine or oral appliances. Symptoms such as snoring, headaches, restless legs, low concentration levels and decreased energy levels also improved in the majority of clients."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10918859
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18234904
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20523238
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208839/
http://www.buteyko.info/pdf/Sleep_Apnoea_and_Breathing_Retraining_Report_May_2012.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428197/


Chronic pain relief
"Our results suggest that the way of breathing decisively influences autonomic and pain processing, thereby identifying DSB in concert with relaxation as the essential feature in the modulation of sympathetic arousal and pain perception."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939499
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2180861
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000182/


Additional Research & References on breathing


1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16007450
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zones_of_the_lung
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm
4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22789789
5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088703
6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183256/
7. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699930143000392
8. https://www.mindfulnessmd.com/2015/06/27/neuroscience-of-mindfulness-take-a-deep-breath/
9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pursed_lip_breathing
10. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001236921661485X
11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pursed_lip_breathing
12. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/8544060_Pursed_Lips_Breathing
13. http://journals.lww.com/jcrjournal/Abstract/2007/07000/Efficacy_of_Pursed_Lips_Breathing__A_BREATHING.10.aspx
14. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/319885-overview#showall
15. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/1904
16. https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/Breathing.html
17. http://www.normalbreathing.com/causes-of-hyperventilation.php
18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365651
19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139518/
20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860392/
21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282474/
22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohr_effect
23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805966
24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191043
25. https://www.transparentcorp.com/downloads/Huang-PsychologicalEffectsBrainwaveEntrainment.pdf
26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941101
27. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51914354_Tibetan_Singing_Bowls
28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403871/
29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566758/
30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16007450
31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144610/
32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516431/
33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734683/



Research & References by the intervention



DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING
"Diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing (the proper way to respire). Taking deep, diaphragmatic breaths is necessary to get the oxygen rich air deep into the base of the lungs, where three times as many blood vessels are available for respiratory exchange compared to the upper lung region."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16007450
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zones_of_the_lung
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm

"It can be concluded that diaphragmatic breathing can be employed as an effective therapy in reducing the oxidative stress..."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22789789

"All studies reported short-term effects, and long-term effects of breathing exercise on asthma quality life."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088703

"DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183256/



CORE ACTIVATION - PLB BREATHING TECHNIQUE WITH EXTENDED EXHALATION
"When you exhale fully, you use main breathing muscle diaphragm and all auxiliary respiratory muscles and contract them as a full three dimensional core system (squeezing muscles of the abdominal region). The main role in this action has a thoracolumbar fascia which connects them together (diaphragm, m. transversus abdominis, m. Multifidus, pelvic floor muscles,…)."
http://jrnlappliedresearch.com/articles/Vol5Iss3/Petrofsky.pdf



BREATHING & EMOTION
"One of the reasons why breathing can change how we feel is that emotions and breathing are closely connected. A revealing research study by Pierre Phillipot showed that different emotional states are associated with distinct respiration patterns."
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699930143000392



CALMING EFFECTS OF SLOW & RHYTHMIC BREATHING
"For example, once you go below 10 breaths a minute you start to engage the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps the body relax when it has been injured. Slow breathing activates the vagus nerve, the primary cranial nerve, which is associated with a recuperative state."
http://www.mindfulnessmd.com/2015/06/27/neuroscience-of-mindfulness-take-a-deep-breath/



IMPROVED OXYGENATION /PLB BREATHING TECHNIQUE
"(PLB - pursed lip breathing technique) creates an additional workload on the body by narrowing exhalation pathway, enabling slow and controlled exhale and forcing your body to adapt to breathing speed, which results in multitude of positive physiological adaptations, including higher lung capacity and more efficient tissue oxygenation."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pursed_lip_breathing
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001236921661485X


"... respiratory therapists teach this technique to their patients to ease shortness of breath and to promote deep breathing, also referred to as abdominal or diaphragmatic breathing.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pursed_lip_breathing

"We conclude that PLB can improve breathing function in patients with primary or secondary respiratory diseases. The breathing pattern associated with PLB produces a more physiological and efficient ventilation.”
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/8544060_Pursed_Lips_Breathing

"Pursed-lips breathing provided sustained improvement in exertional dyspnea and physical function.”
http://journals.lww.com/jcrjournal/Abstract/2007/07000/Efficacy_of_Pursed_Lips_Breathing__A_BREATHING.10.aspx

"Controlled breathing techniques and chest physical therapy are the 2 major components of the multidisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of patients with COPD, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.”
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/319885-overview#showall

"Pursed lip breathing is one of the simplest ways to control shortness of breath. It provides a quick and easy way to slow your pace of breathing, making each breath more effective.”
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Understanding_COPD/hic_Pulmonary_Rehabilitation
_Is_it_for_You/hic_Pursed_Lip_Breathing


"Breathing retraining program can improve lung functions, arterial blood gas and the levels of activities of daily living. Therefore, breathing retraining should be included in respiratory physiotherapy programs in patients with COPD.”
http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/1904


CONSCIOUS BREATHING

"...breathing techniques activate the parasympathetic (inhibitory) nervous system, thus slowing certain physiological processes down that may be functioning too fast or conflicting with the homeostasis of the cells (Jerath et al., 2006)."
https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/Breathing.html



SUFFICIENT BODY OXYGENATION (problem of chronic oxygen starvation/overbreathing/hyperventilation)
"Dozens more medical studies prove the same fact: not only people with chronic disease, but nearly all so called "normal subjects" breathe about 12 L/min (double the medical norm)"
http://www.normalbreathing.com/causes-of-hyperventilation.php



STRESS RESPONSE/RELEASE
"yoga-based practices (4) correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and (5) reduce allostatic load."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365651

"Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress ... The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139518/

"Stress responses can occur as a reaction to physiological (or systemic) challenge or threat; signals from multiple parts of the brain send input to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) within the hypothalamus."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860392/




HYPERVENTILATION & BURNOUT SYNDROME
"Chronic stress can be seen as a process of deteriorating energetic resources. Severe stress symptoms occur if an imbalance between investing and regaining energy persists over a long period of time."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282474/



BOHR EFFECT
"... an increase in blood CO2 concentration, which leads to a decrease in blood pH, will result in haemoglobin proteins releasing their load of oxygen.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohr_effect



BREATHING RETRAINING
"We conclude that breathing retraining has lasting effects on respiratory physiology and is highly correlated with a reduction in reported functional cardiac symptoms."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805966



THETAWAVES/BINAURAL BEATS
"Listening to the binaural beat tapes resulted in a significant reduction in the anxiety score reported ..."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191043

"The overall conclusion was that brainwave entrainment is an "effective therapeutic tool". People suffering from cognitive functioning deficits, stress, pain, headaches & migraines, PMS and other behavioural problems all benefitted from using binaural beats."
https://www.transparentcorp.com/downloads/Huang-PsychologicalEffectsBrainwaveEntrainment.pdf



SINGING BOWLS

"Physiological and psychological effects of a Himalayan singing bowl in meditation practice ..."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941101

"We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls."
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51914354_Tibetan_Singing_Bowls



MINDFULNESS/INTENTIONS
"Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403871/

"Mindful awareness entails more than sensing present experience as it generates an awareness of awareness and attention to intention."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566758/



BODY OXYGEN CHECK (Control pause)
"... the simplest way to measure body oxygenation level, which is the single most important indicator of your general health."
http://www.normalbreathing.com/index-measure-CP.php

"Our results suggest that the voluntary breath-hold time might be a useful index for prediction of the exercise tolerance ..."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16007450

NIRVANAFITNESS BODY OXYGEN CHECK COMPARISON
"The results showed statistically significant increase in Body Oxygen Check of tested subjects. We can conclude that NirvanaFitness® system improves an average measurement for cell oxygenation on average by 70,5 %, lowest 46.7 % and highest score of 113,3 %.
(Research conducted on Faculty of sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia, EU)




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